De visie van Renault op
Henney Kilowatt Dauphine
The Henney Kilowatt made its fleeting appearance in 1959 in the United
States, an American electric Dauphine designed by the National Union
Electric Corporation and Eureka Williams. At this time in history
electric vehicles were pretty much unheard of, so this was a wild
project involving huge challenges!
Birth of the
electric Dauphine project.
In the late
nineteen-fifties and early sixties, Renault was gradually withdrawing
from the US market, after experiencing mixed results there. But around
the same period the Renault Dauphine was attracting interest for what
was at the time a rather unusual reason: electric power. In 1959,
Russell Feldman, president of the National Union Electric Corporation,
owner of the Henney coachwork firm, and battery producer for Exide
Batteries, asked Renault to deliver 100 Dauphines without powertrains.
The Dauphine was chosen, obviously because Renault had some remaining
stock in the US but also for two important reasons: it was much lighter
than other cars on the market, and the rear-mounted engine compartment
was ideal for fitting an electric motor, usually a General Electric
unit, found in Fenwicks. The Henney Kilowatt, as it was known, would
bring in orders from a grand total of 47 customers, well in advance of
the rest of the world as regards environmental awareness.
Most of the
electric cars (32) went to electric utility companies, but motorists
could buy them directly from Henney too. Which was the case of the State
of Tennessee authorities, who ordered electric Dauphines for use as a
service vehicle. We know of only 2 of these cars in roadworthy condition
today. There are a dozen or so, in various states of repair, in the US
and 2 in France (including one owned by Renault Classic).
A 75 KM range
and 14 6 V batteries
Dauphine Kilowatt existed in two versions: the first, intended for urban
use, was powered by 12 6 V batteries wired in series, and achieved a top
speed of 64 km/h and a full-charge range estimated at 64 km. Only 8 of
these cars were made. The second, powered by 14 6 V batteries, raised
the top speed to 80 km/h and the range to 75 km. Electrical systems took
up a great deal of space on the car, and the Henney Kilowatt did not
have a boot. Even so, the vehicle weighed in at 950 kg to 1100 kg
depending on the version. Both models were available in a choice of
three colours: red, grey or black.
Zoe was inspired by this American electric Dauphine
vehicle technology has come a very long way since then! But, sure, the
evolutionary traces are there if we look for them. For a start, we have
braking energy recovery: on a more advanced version developed a few
years later by Bell Laboratories, we find partial battery recharge
during braking, plus onboard electronic control.
point in common is the somewhat similar business model. Because of the
high battery price, Yardney (who also developed an electric Dauphine)
planned to lease them rather than sell them, and thus make the car more
affordable. But the project was too far ahead of its time to survive.
Unfortunately, all the early attempts to introduce electric-powered
vehicles ran into the same sort of obstacles we find today, specifically
the lack of widely available charging structures.
We'd like to thank Jean-Jacques Dupuis of
magazine for his article on the subject and his precious help to us in
preparing this blog article.
bedrijfswagens ZE (Zero Emission)
After ten years of experimentation under actual operating conditions
with its customer-partners, Renault Trucks is pleased to unveil its
second generation of all-electric vehicles: the Renault Master Z.E.,
Renault Trucks D Z.E. and Renault Trucks D Wide Z.E., a complete range
from 3.1 to 26 tonnes ideally suited for use in the city. The Renault
Trucks D and Renault Trucks D Wide Z.E. will be manufactured in the
Renault Trucks plant at Blainville-sur-Orne and will arrive on the
market in 2019. The Renault Master Z.E. will be available in 2018.
To keep pace with the changing face of urban transport, Renault Trucks,
a pioneer in the field of electromobility, is launching its second
generation of electric trucks. The Renault Trucks Z.E. line-up,
consisting of the Renault Master Z.E., Renault Trucks D Z.E. and Renault
Trucks D Wide Z.E., ranging from 3.1 to 26 tonnes, covers the full gamut
of urban uses from goods distribution and delivery to refuse collection.
For Renault Trucks, electromobility was the obvious response to urban
air quality and noise issues from the outset, as well as cut overall CO2
For over ten years, the company has been field testing electric trucks
with its customer-partners in order to garner crucial information about
usage, battery behaviour, charging facilities and specific maintenance
These real-world tests have also enabled Renault Trucks’
customer-partners to help their own customers come to an acceptance of
electric technology. Renault Trucks has over a decade of experience with
all-electric trucks thanks to the Renault Maxity.
years’ ago, we were the pioneers, promoting electric trucks to improve
city air quality”,
explains Renault Trucks President Bruno Blin “Today
we can offer a range of electric vehicles with proven performance and
the experts in our network are ready to help our customers transition to
electromobility. Ten years’ ago we were pioneers, today we are experts.”
The latest technological advances have made electric trucks an
economically viable alternative for hauliers, leading Renault Trucks to
launch a complete Z.E. range.
However strict the regulations may be in urban zones, the vehicles in
the Renault Trucks Z.E. operate seamlessly in compliance. They are the
perfect solution to safeguard air quality and reduce congestion as they
allow noise-free out-of-hours deliveries and emit neither local
pollutants nor CO2.
Some prominent names in freight haulage have already opted for
electromobility. One such company is XPO Logistics “At
XPO, we have led by example as the transport industry becomes
increasingly aware of the need for alternative power”,
said Luis Gomez, managing director-transport, XPO Logistics Europe. “We
commend our supplier Renault Trucks for investing in the development of
electric vehicles that offer a practical way to achieve zero emissions*.
Renault Trucks is shaping the future of commercial transport in an
evolving regulatory environment.”
Suez is also following the release of the Renault Trucks Z.E range with
are delighted to see a competitive new industrial solution arrive on the
market and to be able to partner with Renault Trucks,”
explains Edouard Hénaut, executive director local authorities services
at Suez. “This
new electric truck offering will allow Suez to help its customers reduce
their carbon footprint thanks to a zero-emission
environmentally-friendly and silent refuse collection solution.”
The Renault Master Z.E., which will be released in September 2018, is
ideal for last-mile deliveries and provides access to inner-city areas
even those with strict traffic restrictions. The battery of this
all-electric utility vehicle takes six hours to charge.
Its loading volume is the same as a conventional diesel Renault Master
as the batteries are mounted under the front seats. The Master Z.E.
range comes in six variants (four panel vans and two platform cabs)
designed to meet all the requirements of professionals working in urban
2016 Master ZE
2017 Kangoo ZE
2018 D ZE
2018 D-wide ZE
Lastly, to protect the driver and the load and keep city-dwellers safe,
the Master Z.E. is outfitted with a reversing camera, reversing radar
system and wide-view mirror as standard features.
The specially designed 16 t version of the Renault Trucks D Z.E. is
ideal for urban and controlled temperature deliveries. The Renault
Trucks D Wide Z.E. will come in a 26 t version for efficient refuse
collection. Both models will be manufactured at the Renault Trucks plant
in Blainville-sur-Orne, Normandy, France in the second half of 2019.
A medium-duty Renault Trucks Z.E. vehicle has an operating range of up
to 300 km depending on usage and battery configuration. The battery pack
is the most expensive item when buying an electric truck. For Renault
Trucks, there is no question of compromising on payload or
cost-effectiveness, so different operating ranges will be available
tailored to customers’ exact needs.
Thanks to rapid DC charging, the Renault Trucks D Z.E. and Renault
Trucks D Wide Z.E. lithium-ion batteries can be fully charged in as
little as one to two hours via the 150 kW Combo CCS connector. For
overnight AC charging, the time to fully charge a 300-kWh battery is 12
hours. In this case, a three-phase 380V 32A industrial power socket is
For maximum flexibility in terms of usage and bodywork, the Renault
Trucks D Z.E. and Renault Trucks D Wide Z.E. are equipped with a power
take-off and a standard mechanical interface.
Electrische auto's ZE (Zero Emission)
Renault is in Europa marktleider met
zijn uitgebreide gamma elektrische
auto's. Sinds de introductie van de
eerste elektrisch aangedreven Renault –
de Kangoo Z.E. – eind 2011, verkocht
Renault al zo'n 30.000 exemplaren in
Europa en is daarmee marktleider. Het
Zero Emission-gamma van Renault bestaat
uit de Kangoo Z.E., de ZOE en de Twizy.
Renault blijft ook in de toekomst
inzetten op emissievrije auto's.
The electric vehicle:
good sense for the environment.
“Electric vehicles form
the only practical and affordable solution in existence today to our
planet’s transport-related environmental challenges.”
CARLOS GHOSN, President and CEO of
Wide-scale rollout of
has a long record of commitment to
sustainable transport for all.
For more than twenty years the company has been consistently endeavouring to
reduce the environmental impact of its vehicles and business activities.
Renault was the first European
automaker to believe in the all-electric vehicle.
vehicle is the flagship of Renault’s environmental commitment.
Carlos Ghosn announced a strategy, ambitious and completely unique in the
automotive industry, that would involve putting a full range of affordable
all-electric vehicles on the market by 2012. Renault was true to its word.
Renault today offers electric vehicles addressing a broad spectrum of the
ZOE, Kangoo Z.E., Twizy RSM SM3 Z.E
2010 Fluence ZE
2012 Twizy ZE
2013 Zoé ZE
2013 Kangoo ZE
2013 Samsung SM3 ZE
2016 Master ZE
number-one for electric vehicle sales in
2016, more than one electric vehicle in four is a Renault. And the market is
on the rise. ZOE is Europe’s biggest selling electric vehicle, and Kangoo Z.E.
leads the European market for electric light commercial vehicles.
motoring, for more breathable air.
Because they emit no
exhaust pollutants (particulates, nitrogen oxides, etc.) when driven,
electric vehicles have a key role to play in improving air quality, with the
attendant benefits to public health, especially in urban areas.
Studies have shown that
a 20% proportion of electric vehicles in city centres would bring a
reduction of up to 30% in the concentration of particulates and of up to 45%
in the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. These reductions
become especially important under peak pedestrian exposure conditions, when
pollutant levels rise as a result of meteorological conditions unfavourable
to pollutant dispersion.
an effective countermeasure
against climate change.
power is the real
breakthrough solution for countering climate change, because electric cars
emit no CO2 (carbon
dioxide) while driving(1).
Because an electric motor does not burn any fossil fuel, Renault is fully
committed to the electric vehicle as the innovative solution capable of
meeting today’s environmental challenges.
Even when we factor in CO2 emissions produced by generating the
electricity needed to charge an electric vehicle, the carbon balance is much
better than for an equivalent internal-combustion model in most of the
countries where electric vehicles are sold.
In Europe, the overall carbon figure averages around 72 grams of CO2
per km for ZOE, compared to at least 100 grams for an equivalent
The overall carbon footprint of an electric vehicle varies from one country
to another, with the degree of carbon dependency of local power plants. In
France, for example, where power-plant carbon dependency is relatively low,
the carbon footprint of the Renault ZOE is about 14 grams of CO2
Heading for zero
electricity generation included Stepping up
the energy transition.
contribute to the energy transition in the automotive industry by
reducing the use of fossil energies
(traditional fuels) for transport needs. According to the International
Energy Agency, with seven million electric vehicles on the road worldwide,
we would save 400,000 barrels of crude oil per day from now through to 2020.
And Renault electric vehicle can also contribute to the energy transition in
any other business sector than consumes electricity.
Renault is a
partner on various projects to develop technical solutions in the production
of “green” (i.e. low-carbon) electricity, the aim being to reduce depletion
of the planet’s natural resources. These solutions primarily seek to
compensate for the inherently intermittent nature of renewable energy
sources (solar, wind, etc.), this being the main impediment to development
of green electricity production today.
electric vehicles in car-share schemes
As well as
enjoying an environmentally sound transport practice, Renault electric
vehicle drivers also appreciate the unique driving sensations and superior
convenience of electric power.
Peace and quiet driving becomes much
less stressful without engine noise and vibration. Smooth,
crisp response. Acceleration is smooth,
perfectly linear and sprightly from low revs. In-home
When buying a Renault
electric vehicle, the customer gets full advice on the main charging station
for it (at the driver’s home or workplace, or a nearby street location).
on the increase.
The electric vehicle
charging infrastructure has been growing at a rate of 30% to 60% per year
since 2013. There are more than 100,000 stations worldwide and 80,000 in
Europe. By 2017 France will have trebled its charging infrastructure, to
40,000 stations in all.
At a fast-charge
station, it takes ZOE just 30 minutes to get a 80 to 120 km travel range
boost. There are already around 2,300 fast-charge stations along major trunk
roads in 15 European countries.
rental contract guarantees the customer a fully functional battery (at least
75% original charge capacity) at all times, regardless of vehicle age and
mileage. And Renault roadside assistance covers the vehicle even if it just
runs out of charge.
Electric vehicles enjoy
various privileges in many European cities: special lanes, congestion charge
exemption, in-street charging stations, and special-rate (or free) street
costs compared to
internal-combustion cars. Electric cars cost less
to run: servicing, insurance, charging, etc.
Electric vehicles for
Renault fields a full
range of electric vehicles, addressing a wide customer base with four models
that cover a broad usage spectrum: the ZOE compact city car, the Kangoo Z.E.
van, the Twizy urban quadricycle, and the RSM SM3 Z.E. upmarket sedan.
Purchase prices are comparable to those of equivalent internal-combustion
vehicles, especially in countries that practise tax incentives for electric
vehicles, and running costs are competitive.
Meeting new mobility
Renault anticipates and
responds to new mobility needs, seizing emerging opportunities for the use
of its all-electric vehicles. Because of increasing urban road congestion,
and for financial reasons, more and more people are giving up car ownership
in favour of car-pooling. Renault actively encourages sharing of its
In summer 2016 Groupe
Renault launched a new car-sharing service, Renault Mobility, providing both
private users and businesses with round-the-clock self-service access to
both electric and internal-combustion cars (ZOE, Captur, Clio). The service
is currently under trial in France, and Renault plans to develop this kind
of solution in urban and rural areas through its network of partners, with a
view to offering nationwide local access.
innovative, urban, hybrid technology concept vehicle.
With its futuristic design, Hybrys is an expression
of Renault Trucks’ vision of future urban transport. It is also a
progressive step towards the inclusion of hybrid technologies in its
products already on the market, offering alternative solutions to diesel.
Environmental protection, increasing prices for
petrol-based products and their diminishing resources has driven Renault
Trucks to broaden its product offer for increasingly lower fuel consumption
vehicles by means of new energies.
In its product range, targeting local authorities
and highways agencies, Renault Trucks offers a unique range of engines and
alternative energy solutions : bio-diesel, natural gas, diesel / electric
bi-modal and wholly electric. In the near future, hybrid, so called
‘parallel’ technologies (combining diesel and electric engines delivering
power depending on different power distribution scenarios) used on the
Hybrys concept vehicle will complement the current solutions.
Met de introductie van
Renault eco² gaat Renault
een nieuwe fase in door aan
het grote publiek bekend te
maken hoeveel inspanning het
merk levert om ecologische
en economische auto’s aan te
kunnen bieden. Ecologisch
door resultaten die gemeten
kunnen worden in alle fasen
van de levensduur van de
auto. Economisch voor wat
het aanbod toegankelijke
technieken voor de klant en
indien van toepassing het
recht op fiscale voordelen.
Een auto is Renault eco² als hij
aan de volgende drie criteria
De CO2-uitstoot is
lager dan 140g/km of
de auto rijdt op
ethanol E85 of
biodiesel B30 (fleets).
De auto is
geproduceerd in een
De auto is voor 95%
van zijn gewicht
recyclebaar en bevat
kunststoffen van de totale hoeveelheid
kunststoffen in de
Door Renault eco² te
introduceren laat Renault
zien al jaren begaan te zijn
met het milieu om op die
manier talrijke invloeden op
het milieu te beperken
gedurende de hele levensduur
van de auto. Renault maakt
bovendien duidelijk dat het
merk deze grote ecologische
uitdagingen aanpakt door
middel van innovatieve
technieken die op zoveel
mogelijk auto’s toegepast
kunnen worden en die
toegankelijk zijn voor de
klant. Renault eco² maakt
voor de klant zichtbaar in
hoeverre Renault begaan is
met de bescherming van het
milieu en bevestigt nog eens
de milieudoelstellingen van
het Renault Contract 2009.
Renault onderscheidt zich
met name van zijn
concurrenten met de
resultaten op het gebied van
recycling. Renault eco²
verandert voortdurend. Zo
worden de criteria voor
Renault eco² de komende
jaren verder aangevuld en